War By the Numbers: Which One Was Deadliest?

War and conflict are significant contributors to human death. Millions of people have died over the centuries during these battles, often started for reasons that involve conquest or dominion.

Although we often think of modern wars as having the most casualties, that is not always the case. Here are the deadliest conflicts recorded in human history.

1. World War II

With the Allied vs. Axis powers conflict, the Sino-Japanese battles, and the side wars that waged during this conflict, up to 85 million people were killed from 1937-1945. Although World War II’s official start is 1939, some battles started up to 24 months earlier that became part of the overall conflict.

2. The Transition from Ming China to Qing China

The Ming-Qing Transition was a conflict that took a confirmed 25 million lives, and probably killed millions more. This conflict lasted for almost 70 years during the 17th century as multiple kingdoms and dynasties fought for power and control.

3. Spanish Conquest of the Americas

This conflict took an estimated 25 million lives in direct battle and possibly claimed double that figure with disease introduction. As Europeans came to conquer the Americas for riches, multiple plagues ripped through the region, wiping cultures off the map.

4. World War I

Up to 40 million people may have died because of the various battles that happened in the first global war. After coming out of this conflict, the world had a flu epidemic that took up to 50 million more lives. Those figures don’t account for the Russian Civil War’s casualties that took place during this period.

5. Chinese Civil War

This conflict pitted the ROC against the PRC to see what government style would dominate in China. The communists would eventually win, with the democratic officials fleeing to Taiwan for safety. Almost 8 million people died in this conflict.

6. The Mongol Conquests

The battles that the Mongol Empire started against several Eurasian states took up to 40 million lives. When you add the Bubonic Plague that likely came along during this migration, another 200 million were killed, making this era in human history the deadliest ever recorded. It was over 160 years of sporadic war.

The last 50 years have been the most peaceful our planet has experienced over the last ten centuries. Our continued efforts to avoid war can continue this trend.

What Does It Take to Get Into an Ivy League School?

Eight Ivy League schools represent the epitome of educational achievement in the United States. The schools, ranked in no particular order, are Yale, Princeton, Penn, Harvard, Dartmouth, Cornell, Columbia, and Brown.

Their average acceptance rate is only 9%. The exclusivity of attending one of these institutions has some significant advantages. About one-quarter of the 400 wealthiest people in the United States attended one of these schools. 

How can you give yourself the best chance to get an acceptance letter?

How Do I Get Into an Ivy League School?

It would be best if you thought about differentiation. Over half of the accepted students at Harvard already have a 4.0 GPA, with similar figures found at the other institutions. Being elite in your school isn’t enough.

It would help if you thought about the other activities you have in your life. Does your work get printed regularly in national publications? Do you excel in other extra-curricular activities?

Getting into an Ivy League school requires you to be the best of the best. That means you need to be a changemaker on a global scale.

It helps to have a relative as an alumnus to an Ivy League school that can support your application.

You don’t need to be well-rounded to get into your preferred school. It may be necessary for some less selective institutions, but the Ivy League wants to see people with a strong performance in at least one (if not two or three) categories.

Why Isn’t My GPA Enough Today?

The average GPA for accepted students in the Ivy League institutions today is above 4.0. It’s as high as 4.19 at Cornell. Only Princeton and Yale are lower, and their average is 3.9.

Your SAT or ACT scores need to have a similar altitude to get attention. Yale’s average accepted score is 1580 and 35, respectively. Anything lower may send the application to the rejection pile.

Even with those attributes, an outstanding personal essay is necessary to get your application across the finish line. You must be personable, authentic, and unique. Get your paperwork in early to have the best chance.

$503 Million Contract Extension for the KC Chiefs’ Patrick Mahomes

Many young athletes think about the joys of going pro one day. The odds are against anyone starting right now to play professionally in their sport, but the payday is one reason to pursue those dreams.

Quarterback Patrick Mahomes of the Kansas City Chiefs is evidence of what it can mean to have a dream come true. He recently signed a $503 million contract extension to continue playing in the NFL.

How can you achieve your dreams of becoming a professional athlete one day? The journey begins when you start taking care of your health. Products from brands like Carlson Labs, Jarrow Formulas, and Vital Proteins can help you customize the health and wellness foundation needed to perform at an elite level.

Once you take care of the fuel your body needs, you’ll want to follow these additional steps.

How to Become a Professional Athlete

Develop Your Soft Skills

Professional athletes need superior skills in concentration, decision making, physical stamina, and hand-eye coordination. Anyone with the right training can physically perform the movements and complete the expectations of their sport. Enhancing these qualities ensures that you can access the natural talents you have in that area.

Work on Your Interpersonal Skills

Most professional athletes work as a member of a team. That means you must develop your interpersonal skills so that it is possible to be successful with all personality types. You don’t need to be best friends with everyone, but you must find a way to be around them without generating conflict.

Get Ready for the Scheduling Problems

Most professional athletes work when the general public is available to watch. That means you’ll have lots of games or competitions on the weekends and holidays. You have the expectation to train on the days when you don’t compete. Most sports operate for 7-9 months during the year, with some being a year-round affair.

You Must Focus on Discipline

Most professional athletes don’t get rich, famous, or play a lot. The average salary in 2016 was less than $50,000 per year. Your focus on discipline ensures that you can enjoy competing and working in an area that you love. It’s more of a lifestyle than a career.

Anyone can become a professional athlete when the drive to excel is present. You may not get $503 million like Patrick Mahomes, but there will still be fun stories to tell to your family once your career is over. 

It Was Ten Degrees Warmer in the Siberian Arctic in June

A small community in northeastern Siberia likely set the record for the highest temperature ever recorded above the Arctic Circle in June 2020. Temperatures soared to 100.4°F (38°C) in the town of Verkhoyansk, making it the first reading above that threshold in recorded history.

Russians have been recording temperatures and weather readings since 1885. The United States and Europe began to do keep this information around the same time.

The Siberian Arctic is in the middle of a massive heatwave. The region has seen six months of unusual warmth, creating average temperatures ten degrees higher for the month than average. Many believe that these readings are the most persuasive evidence yet that global warming trends change the landscape of our planet.

How the Excessive Heat Changes the Arctic

The trends seen in the Siberian Arctic are similar to what other cold-weather climates are experiencing. Temperatures are at or near the record levels of 2018 and 2019, sometimes by more than two degrees.

When excessive heat reaches the Arctic (or the Antarctic), moisture trapped in the ground evaporates into the atmosphere. This process saps the soil and plant life of the nutrients needed for survival, creating a tinder that serves as fuel for numerous wildfires.

Russia announced in July 2020 that the Siberian region was experiencing almost 250 separate forest fires. A total of 140,000 hectares was burning, creating an emergency declaration for several areas. Even local state television showed planes dumping waters on massive columns of white smoke.

Some Heatwaves in Siberia Are Expected

The year-over-year temperature fluctuations above the Arctic Circle are somewhat expected. Massive shifts in climate can happen annually, and sometimes these alterations occur in weeks or months.

That’s why having such an unusually warm spell, with the Arctic warming faster than the rest of the planet, is such a worrisome event.

The hot temperatures and forest fires are doing more than melting glaciers or rising sea levels. Carbon emissions from Siberia measuring 59 megatons in June 2020, up over 10% from the year before.

That means the hot temperatures are creating a cycle that encourages more warmth to develop. Although winter will bring cold and snow, changes to the permafrost could cause permanent problems.

$1.6 Billion Awarded to Novavax for a Coronavirus Vaccine

Novavax made headlines in 2020 because the company received $1.6 billion from the Trump Administration. The funds are the largest contract of its type for this struggling organization, one which has never brought a usable vaccine to the marketplace.

Why did Novavax get so much attention when other pharmaceutical companies with a better record of success were on the same path? In a rare move of bipartisanship in American politics, executives from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation promoted this small biotech company’s potential.

Republican officials in the White House agreed. The company uses moth cells to create crucial molecules faster than a typical vaccine, providing an advantage during the pandemic era that other companies couldn’t match.

The Company Was on the Verge of Collapse

Novavax made the push to the federal government for the $1.6 billion award after receiving almost $400 million from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, headed by Dr. Richard Hatchett.

The funds are a dramatic turnaround for a company that was on the verge of collapse. After receiving the award, stock prices surged 30% almost overnight.

Novavax was on the verge of collapse. Their leading vaccine candidate was a product intended to prevent a deadly virus in newborns. It had failed for the second time in three years, causing the stock to trade so low that NASDAQ was threatening to delist it.

The company was raising cash by selling its manufacturing facilities.

How could the agency get so much money so quickly to produce a successful vaccine that it had never done before? The answer lies in a secretive mission called Operation Warp Speed.

What Is Operation Warp Speed?

Operation Warp Speed is a public-private partnership (PPP) initiated by the Trump Administration in April 2020. The goal of this effort was to accelerate the development, manufacturing, and distribution of vaccines to stop COVID-19. 

Congress allocated about $10 billion for this effort, including $3 billion for research through the National Institutes of Health.

Novavax received the $1.6 billion offer with one condition: it had to prove that its clinical trials were successful. If that happened, the money would help them to produce 100 million doses of the vaccine.

BioNTech and Pfizer received a $2 billion order with the same stipulation, getting 100 million doses of a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine. In July 2020, GSK and Sanofi got funding of $2.1 billion. 

7.4 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Mexico

A massive earthquake struck Mexico’s southern coast in late June, registering a 7.4 magnitude quake that prompted evacuations. The incident killed at least five people as buildings collapsed in the region.

Health services from the state of Oaxaca reported that several hospitals in the region sustained damage because of the earthquake. Two of the facilities affected by this incident were treating confirmed COVID-19 patients.

People as far away as El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala reported feeling the earthquake. Its epicenter was approximately 190 miles south of Mexico City, where sirens wailed in response to the land movements.

Tsunami Warnings Were Briefly Issued

The magnitude of the earthquake caused tsunami warnings to be issued along the southern Mexico coast initially. Early estimates suggested that waves higher than 3.3 feet could come into the shore. Observers in Salina Cru and Acapulco noted waves of more than two feet instead.

Overall, the damage experienced in Oaxaca is considered light to moderate, although several buildings did collapse during the incident. The initial estimate of repairs was less than $100 million.

Mexico is one of the world’s most active areas for earthquakes because of its position along the Pacific Ring of Fire. The country has a long history of managing devastating seismic events. It sits on top of three significant tectonic plates that experience volcanic eruptions and regular movement.

Two earthquakes hit Mexico in 2017, with the strongest reaching a magnitude 8.1. That incident cracked highways and toppled several structures.

How to Survive an Earthquake

If you are inside of a building during an earthquake, drop to the ground immediately. Find cover underneath a sturdy table or another furniture item. Try to stay away from any walls, windows, or glass that could shatter to cause an injury. Stay put into all of the shaking stops.

When you are outside during an earthquake, don’t try to run. Move into an open area away from trees or buildings that could fall if possible. Power lines, broken water pipes, or cracked gas mains could all cause problems after the seismic event.

These States Have the Highest and Lowest Literacy Rates

The global literacy rate currently stands at 86.3%. It is significantly higher for men, mainly when calculating the African continent’s standards where educational gaps are present.

Americans often believe the United States is the most literate country globally, but it typically ranks in the middle of the top 10. Several European nations, including Finland, Norway, and Switzerland, achieve a higher ranking.

Some U.S. states are successful at providing education opportunities to everyone, while others lack services in this area.

Highest Literacy Rates

1. New Hampshire has the highest literacy rate in the United States at 94.2%. Over one-third of adults have a bachelor’s degree or higher, and 60% of households have at least one registered library user.

2. Minnesota has a 94% literacy rate. Over 70% of individuals have a library card that they use regularly here.

3. North Dakota comes in with a 93.7% literacy rate despite having the lowest number of registered library users in the country.

4. South Dakota has a 93% literacy rate, partially due to having 16.4 public libraries available for every 100,000 residents. 

Lowest Literacy Rates

1. California has a basic prose literacy rate of 76.9%. The state’s situation is so bad that the government is getting sued because students are not receiving the education needed for essential reading and writing skills.

2. New York has a literacy rate of 77.9%. What is unique about this statistic is that the state is also in the top 10 for adults with an undergraduate degree or higher.

3. Florida’s literacy rate stands at 80.3%. The issue here involves a lack of public library access, with just 2.6 facilities available for every 100,000 people. 

4. Texas has a literacy rate of 81%, and public library access is also an issue here.

State geography doesn’t tell the entire story of literacy in the United States. 23% of those with low English literacy skills are African-American, which is the most disproportionate racial or cultural demographic in this category.

The Most Played Instruments by Age in the United States

Music has been regarded by a vast majority of people as a gift. This is because, it can be used to make someone happy, lift a person’s mood, fend off bad feelings, and most particularly, to entertain. This has made many people in the United States embrace the gift of music. 

There are varieties of instruments that have been used in the United States. In this article, we will talk about the instruments that are mostly played by age in the US.

Popular and most played instruments in the United States


The guitar is one of the many popular, most beautiful, and most played instruments in the United States and all over the world. It is being used to make different types of lovely music. One thing that makes this particular musical instrument outstanding and loved by a majority of people is because a person playing it can easily change its sound to fit many different styles, and this depends on the way he plays it.

This is one of the major reasons why the guitar is widely appreciated by almost everybody and is also perfect for any kind of song. Out of every music that is being made in the United States, the guitar is used in almost 85 – 90% of them. New guitars and quality vintage guitars are about the same price today, either being a great option to start learning the instrument.


This is another musical instrument that has often been played in the US long ago, even until this present time. The piano is an instrument that is so easy to play, and because of how difficult it is, you may probably begin to think that it is meant to be played by just a few numbers of people and that it requires great talent and needs to be played by people that can be able to master it very quickly.

Well, this thought is wrong. Anyone who is determined can learn to make lovely music with it. Because of the amazing and beautiful sound that the piano makes and the awesome effect of changing songs that it has, numerous people in the US have consistently practiced hard so that they can play the instrument with beauty and precision. Many in the United States have enjoyed listening and making music with this gorgeous instrument. Yamaha and Steinway & Sons are the two most popular brands out there.


We cannot claim this one to be a perfect instrument. If you mistakenly do something wrong, the violin will give you a horrifying sound. But, by the time you begin to play it in the right way, you will be blessed with magical sounds and a lovely effect on anyone listening to it. The sound it produces is smooth and easy to listen to, and this is what makes many people use the violin to create music.


This is also among the most played instruments in the United States. By the time you just hear a sound that it produces, you will be tempted to keep listening. Because of the mesmerizing melodies and unique sound that comes out of it, you will always be hungry to listen when it is being played. Many people in the US love to make music with this astonishing instrument because of its gorgeous and bone-chilling sound.


Fabulous is a word that can be used to describe this instrument. It is capable of making sounds that put you in the dancing spirit, and then make you sit down, meditate, and cry. The clarinet is just awesome.

Many other instruments are being played in the US, but these are the most prevalent. If you’re looking for an instrument for you or a child to learn, consider one of these!

Going to Bed 30 Minutes Late Could Increase Your Resting Heart Rate

Sleep is a critical component of individual health. With the ever-present connections we have to people around the world, it can be challenging to turn the switch off at night.

Healthy sleep habits are necessary to encourage the body’s circadian rhythms to manage when you feel tired and when to wake up. Taking caffeine or using other stimulants to alter this energy can interrupt your rest, change your heart rate, and cause other biological changes.

Even going to bed 30 minutes late is enough to increase your resting heart rate.

Following these steps each day can encourage you to develop a routine that helps you to get to bed at the right time.

Best Activities for a Healthy Bedtime Routine

1. Start Your Morning on a Positive Note

Your bedtime routine starts when you wake up in the morning. Consider adding natural energy-boosters from brands like Bezwecken, BrainMD, or Integrative Therapeutics instead of reaching for those 2-4 cups of coffee. You’ll avoid the mid-afternoon crash while maintaining your focus. 

2. Limit Your Rating Window

Try to keep the foods and beverages you eat to a 10-hour window each day. If you need something right before bed, use yogurt, nuts, or oatmeal to satisfy the craving. These foods work to boost your melatonin levels right before you’re ready to drift off to sleep.

3. Lower the Thermostat and the Lights.

Your body recognizes cooler temperatures as a time to go to bed. Lowering the lights creates a similar effect. When you try to sleep in hot weather or bright conditions, it is more challenging to get to sleep. See what happens if you set the thermostat in the bedroom to 65°F tonight.

4. Eliminate the Electronics

Using electronic devices in the bedroom can create a stimulating effect on the body. It is powerful enough to keep you awake, even if nothing is on. If you need sounds to drift to sleep, consider using a white noise machine instead of a tablet or smartphone to reduce the impact of blue-light exposure.

5. Write Your Thoughts in a Journal

Racing thoughts is a sign of anxiety. If you have worries about what may happen tomorrow, write them down in a journal before trying to sleep. Creating a to-do list can also help the mind from its internal debate about what you need to do the next day.

A consistent bedtime routine sets the stage for a healthier you. What steps could you implement today?

Data Evaluation Do’s and Don’ts for Beginners

We all create large deposits of information about ourselves each day. Companies can use this data to discover trends, implement strategies, and become more efficient.

Data evaluation is often called “mining.” This information can yield profitable results when the do’s and don’ts for beginners get followed.

List of the Do’s of Data Evaluation

  • Do involve every team and business unit in the overall strategy. Managing this information cannot be an isolated activity if you hope to leverage the massive data volumes that can help you to learn more about customers.
  • Do evaluate every delivery model for data evaluation. Innovations in this sector make it easier to use cloud-based storage and other remote assets.
  • Do think about your traditional information resources so that they get included with your overall strategy. You’re not switching from one data set to another. You need both to have the appropriate benchmarks that can help you to find growth.
  • Do plan for the data you collect to continue growing. As more technology enters our lives, the information will become the only relevant currency that companies use.
  • Do create a distribution network for your data evaluation needs. A single server is not going to have the capacity to handle all of the information that is coming your way.

List of the Don’ts of Data Evaluation

  • Don’t rely on a single approach to your analytics. You need to use multiple methods of data evaluation to ensure all of the collected information is useful. Each outcome you hope to achieve may require a different combination.
  • Don’t overlook the need for integration. Silos filled with information won’t do anything unless the data is available to everyone, even if it goes through a complete analyzing process.
  • Don’t get too big before you are ready to handle the information. It can be exciting to think about all of the benefits that data evaluation provides, but you need internal resources to maximize those advantages. Having everyone getting burned out because there aren’t enough hands to go around is a recipe that leads to failure.
  • Don’t forget to create security protocols for your data evaluation structures. Governments are implementing numerous regulations in this area that holds companies responsible for the information they hold about people. You need to manage privacy, sharing, and similar tasks to remain in compliance with local expectations. \

While data evaluation is critical, don’t lose sight of how you present that data. If people aren’t moved to action or can’t understand what is being presented, then you haven’t accomplished anything. Check out our article on the subject of presenting statistical evidence to learn more.